Database management is the method for managing information that aids the organization’s business processes. It involves storing data, disseminating it to applications and users making edits as needed, monitoring data changes, and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s total informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making, corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a broad range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data in accordance with the specific scheme, for example one-to-many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most popular database type in the present. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It is also easier to update data because it does not require changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is focused on the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, including the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on the various data models) and can also include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data to improve performance.

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